Weill, Claudia: Director Profile
The same year, 1977, that Joan Micklin Silver's Between the Lines was released also saw Claudia Weill's Girlfriends, a sympathetic look at a young, unattractive woman who tries to make it as a photographer in New York. The screenplay was written by Vicki Polon, based on Katherine Mansfield's story “Bliss.” Prior to her feature debut, Weill produced a number of documentaries, including the acclaimed Joyce at 34, and directed the Oscar-nominated documentary, The Other Half of the Sky: A China Memoir (1975), a chronicle of the first women's delegation to China led by Shirley MacLaine.
Girlfriends, which began as a short at the AFI, was the first indie to be backed by grants (totaling $80,000) from government and city councils. Bringing the feature to the screen, however, was a long arduous task. Shooting lasted six weeks, but post-production stretched out for over a year. When the funding from NEA and N.Y. State Council on the Arts ran out, Weill was forced to interrupt her work and stitch together completion money from private backers.
The protagonists of Girlfriends, Susan Weisblatt (Melanie Mayron) and Anne Munroe (Anita Skinner), are college graduates who share a walk-up apartment on the Upper West Side. They are constructed as types: Susan is Jewish (Fiddler on the Roof like music plays when she's onscreen), Anne Munroe is gentile (her music is neo-baroque). Their friendship is put to test when Anne, an ambitious but not very talented poet, opts for marriage, and Susan is left alone. She works with an urbane rabbi (Eli Wallach) on bar mitzvahs and weddings, but at heart she is an artist yearning for recognition. Desperately needing affection and companionship, Susan has to overcome fears of herself and of a permanent relationship.
Girlfriends could have easily degenerated into soap opera, but Weill keeps the slice-of-life film simple and realistic, with charm and humor under the quiet desperation. As a study of loneliness (it's implied that New York is filled with girls living unfulfilled lives), it draws on Mayron's strong performance. With her halo of frizzled hair and intelligent, expressive face, Mayron registers a problematic life with hesitant, repressed gestures.
Male friendships, with their robust macho romanticism, have often been celebrated in American films. A spate of male buddy movies was produced in the 1970s as a backlash against the Women's Movement. According to Molly Haskell, the emotional intensity of these films exists between the men; feminism gave filmmakers the freedom to drop the token women from the narrative altogether.
Weill reacted against buddy films, which ignored or downgraded women. Simplistic in their notion of friendship, most of these films revolve around “two men with beautiful faces and the adventures they have together,” but for Weill, “what's more interesting is what's not said, what people want from each other.”
A woman's intimacy with a man is such a cherished experience, that society tends to disregard friendship among women. Hence, female friendship has been largely ignored by Hollywood, giving the erroneous impression that it hardly exists. The more prevalent stereotype is that of women going at each other or competing for men. However, with divorce rates on the rise, marriage an increasingly fragile institution, and search for new bonds, female friendship gained new interest. With the emergence of the women's movement, attitudes began changing. “Today, it's considered bad form to break a date with a woman if a man calls,” observed Weill in 1977, “Not long ago, the man always came first.”
In the late 1970s, a cycle of Hollywood films exalted female friendship: Julia, The Turning Point, Unmarried Woman, were all released within a year. Most of these pictures centered on a pair of female friends, usually opposites. Fred Zinnemann's Julia depicts Lillian Hellman's (Jane Fonda) idealized friendship with the heroic Julia (Vanessa Redgrave), a mythic figure that may or may not have existed as such. At the center of The Turning Point, also directed by a man (Herbert Ross), is a rivalry between two friends who have chosen radically different lives: One (Anne Bancroft) pursues a dance career with dedication, the other (Shirley MacLaine) follows a domestic life of wife-mother. In neither picture is the friendship convincingly or richly detailed, and neither opened the door to new cinematic subject matter.
Weill, on the other hand, aimed to show that “female friendship is as fragile, delicate, supportive, complex, nourishing, painful and difficult as a love affair,” because, at the end of the day, “you share meals, you go to the movies together and you see friends together.” Weill's film doesn't suggest that friendship with another woman is better than with a man, only that it's different: “With two women, you know how a person is going to respond, there's a kind of bonding with identical things shared.”
Loosely inspired by Weill's experience with her roommate at Radcliffe College, both characters in Girlfriends draw on her life–”I have been Susan and I have been Anne.” Despite the title, however, Girlfriends is better at depicting Susan's commitment to work than dissecting her friendships. Less defined than Susan, the WASPY Anne is used as the Other, a counterpoint to Susan's values and choices. By marrying young, bearing a child and giving up her career, Anne follows a traditional woman's role. Eventually, the two women are brought together on a deeper level of friendship, on the day Susan achieves professional success with her first exhibition in a SoHo gallery. In the final sequence, they even sneer at the man (Bob Balaban's prim, insidious jerk) who caused their breakup.
Girlfriends brought the label “feminist filmmaker” to Weill, but she felt neither limited nor pressured by it: “It's extremely chauvinistic to assume that because you are a woman you have to make films about women or relationships. Feminism is a point of view you can use on any subject, even a big entertainment film.” Weill was gratified that male and female viewers enjoyed her candid view of friendship. Girlfriends drew positive comments from men who confided in Weill: “When my best friend got married, I felt lost.”
If you want to know more about this issue, please read my book, Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film(NYU Press, hardcover 200; paperback 2001).
Leave a Reply
- Doors Co-Founder Ray Manzarek Dies at 74
- Bigas Luna: Spanish Director Dies at 67
- Jhabvala, Ruth Prawer: Oscar-Winner Dies at 85
- Romero, George: Director Profile
- Fuqua, Antoine: Director Profile
- Michael Winner: Director of Death Wish Dies at 77
- Oscar Directors: Bigelow, Kathryn
- Jodie Foster Honored with DeMille Award from Hollywood Foreign Press
- Tony Scott, Dead at 68
- Nora Ephron: Writer-Director Dies at 71
- Actor Profile: Sacha Baron Cohen
- Zac Efron: Actor Profile